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Harouf in the first half of the Twentieth Century

A social - cultural - political and economic study



Ali Abbas Harqous


Dr. Wajih Kawtharani

A letter prepared to obtain a post graduate diploma in history


In The Lebanese University

The Faculty of Arts and Human Sciences

Section I - History Department


1- Research Introduction

2- Subject Choice

3- Method of Research

4- Letter Scheme

5- A Word of Thanks



History scored past and the present. From this rich record of events and attitudes, the future benefits from the experience and expertise of the past and present. (Amelian) Land Knew, through its long and bitter history, a sharply conflict, which makes events left their historic marks with different colors and various forms, represented by the fortresses, strongholds and caves, since the times of pagan theology and crusade, passing by Islamic effects which appeared with the emergence of the Islamic faith in the Seventh Century.

That was pilgrimage, mosques and silos, which are still with the proud fixed as mountains to this day, in more than (Amelian) spot, that make political events and wars failed to obliterate its effects. These spiritual and archaeological beacons, confer on the Amel mountain blessing and sanctity of the sky. As for example: (Youshaa') scene, the (Prophet Munther) and (Hazkell), (Jacob daughters), (Shamaa'), (Ali Al-Tahir), (Sujud), the (Prophet Qassim and Alaouithi), (Sheeth) and other... These archaeological keys, with its kinds and forms, are a strong proof of the importance of this land, sites and tenders, towns and villages, throughout the history.

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Subject Choice

For each village a history, as is the case for each people. The historic movement has played, with the political circumstances, economic, social and intellectual, its role in the evolution of human societies. As starting from the one development stage of modest, simple agglomerations, to the gatherings, which began pastorally, and then to the hamlets and farms, villages and cities in the civilian deportees in sophisticated stage, known to man after the well advanced from awareness and prosperity and civil rights.

And "Harouf" is one of the Lebanese villages, which was formed in, under this long historical movement, although we do not yet have a fulfilled clear answer on questions.. when? and how?. This is not negligence or dereliction of us, but the loss of historical sources on the subject, except for the modest information we are able to collect from the encyclopedia of (Boutros Mirhej) " know Lebanon" on the origins of naming and its meaning in Hebrew and Syriaclic. This designation is an evidence of its deep historical depth.

However, the historical reality and the field, suggests to us that as limit and as much as they answer some questions by some dependent archaeological deployed on the outskirts of this village, such manifestations constructive in the (Dairqays) in the Eastern outlying area of Harouf village. With some caves of wonderful archaeological  as (Bazzaz) cave, in the Western outlying area of Harouf, and (Al-Jabbanah) cave, and some old wells, proving the depth of this village in history. Also, the stone dams located above (Ayen Alqaryah) and (Ayen Bneet), and the huge stone for the (Ayen Al-Dahab) in the Eastern outlying area of Harouf, is only with the archaeological signs, showing foothold feet of these ancient peoples for this village. There are also mortars of archaeological presses, painting in a rock in a wonderful and surprising artistic treasures. Add to this the (Shakriah neighborhood) in Harouf, which represents in a stage, its feudal clan conflict in the (Amel Mountain), in Southern Bishara Area, in the Seventeenth Century, between them and the family of Ali Al-Sagheer 1649.


In response to me to some of the Haroufies events, and the desire to search and detect the ambiguity of this Amelian modest village, which has played in a period, a social and intellectual role in Amel Mountain, by the efforts of its literates, notables and chieftains, the likes of Sheikh Hassan Houmani, novelist and poet Mohammad Ali Al-Houmani, Assayed Ali Fahss, Assayed Amin Qassem Badreddin, The chieftains of Al Karaki; Amin, Hassan, Hussein and Mohammad, Sheikh Abdel Latif Qassem Moussa and many other...

In the later days of the French mandate in 1920, the Haroufies played a liberal role, they stood, in the words of Senates and the elderly, a steadfast stand against French colonialism. They expressed that in the writings and poetry terminals, and in stance to the rebels side, as (Adham Khanjar) and (Sadeq Hamzah) and the like. Who provided them subsidies and facilities in the evidence and information, food and accommodation, in loving them for their heroic revolution against occupation forces and against the imperialists. Also a participated named, (Issa Qassem), a person from the town of Jibsheet, who already was resident in Harouf, on the side of this movement.

Harouf has paid a heavy price for this stand and uprising, like all Amelian villages, which has risen up against French. It was penalized pay financial penalties, and the imposition of blackmail, the house searches in search of weapons. In addition to imposing sanctions moral and material as a delivery siege, and negligence in the building of schools, not to mention the harassment and the seeds of sectarian sedition that colonizer planted in the hearts of the sons of one nation, to break their unity. Except this fine penalties of (Al-Farwadah) and rifles imposed by the colonizer on the uprising forces. From this historical point, and as a grandchildren of the ancient people of this Amelian village, I found in this modest research, a sent up to a forgotten ring, added to the Amelian compositor contract, hoping thus providing the historical library with, and a great service for struggling Amelian generations.

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The Method of Research

For each research, its own objective systematize, according to the sequence of events. And Harouf  history, is inseparable in its public events, from the history of Amel Mountain, or rather, from the history of Lebanon as a whole. So then Amel Mountain, is divided in terms of the political history to the old, average and new talk. Harouf, in political nature subject to these three roles.

But the loss of documents, manuscripts and the sources, add many of the uncertainty on the study of these roles and their impact on Harouf in particular. But as from the side of importance and the public, it is an interactive and impact village, as a one part out of all.

As feudal Leadership since the Eighteenth Century which is practiced on the Amelian Land, in a away, where many problems and complexities, until the (Ottomani) rule in 1918, up to the onset of the French mandate in 1920, the population remained in Amel Mountain as Harouf under this tool of authoritarian rule.

With the onset of the Lebanese independence in 1943, the feudal leaders and their grandchildren with a recommendation of French became, appointed political leaders, or by superficiality election. So, now feudalism became the master of political life, in Amel Mountain and the area of Nabatiyeh. Since the clan ruling, represented by Al, Al-Zein, Al-Assad, Al-Fadhel, and their followers subsequently as Al Shaheen, and Sabbah, they were and continue to rotate in a representational places in the Lebanese Parliament, since the Administrative Committee for Grand Lebanon 1920, up to the representative Council in 1925, and to this day.

These themes combined, had to be documented and examined, according to an objective and clear systematic context, aiming to keep in systematic integration complement with both of them, and to commensurate with the historical research, and the sequence of events in time. In touched on the intellectual, social and economic aspects, as to the overlap of their effects in events. I humbly confess, that I have not reach the perfect in this research, but as I could, I sought to it and desired it, hoping from the God, reconcile and fulfilling.

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The Scheme of the Letter (Research)

This letter was divided into an introduction, a conclusion, two sections, a supplement with documents and manuscripts, references and sources, and an index of contents. The first section consisted of three chapters, The first chapter deals with the historical context of Amel Mountain, the second chapter talks about the geographical and historical framework for Harouf, with the mention of the famous places in the village, and the water project. While chapter three, was searching in the intellectual and cultural movement, passing with educational phase, since the beginning of the 20th until the Fiftieth Century, with the mention of intellectual and cultural interaction for the Amel social, with the  Haroufies emerging.


While the second section, the latter, was put for the political, social and economic situation, with the study of habits and traditions, presentation of the reasons and substantive grounds that pushed Harouf people to different kinds of internal and abroad migration, particularly to the homes of America and Africa, and in another stage to the Gulf countries. This section is also mentioned the impact of the migration on the social and economic situation from both sides, positive and negative effects. As the last chapter of this section is pointed to the side of agricultural, animal and communications, with the commercial market. Also it's addressed in a concise, to the light industry of Harouf, as in Haj/ Ibrahim Hamdan, and Haj/ Mahmoud Harb factories, with the entry of modern machine to the village (wheat... mill).


The research concludes, by outlining the obstacles and difficulties, that researcher has faced, in getting real access to sources and documents, or overlap in the words down by storytellers, and that prompted the researcher to the screening mostly and linked to a research comes with coherent and integrated approach.


God is with the intent behind


Harouf on March 15, 1986



The above tracks of this Research, is an account of the contents of the Letter in general, as for the details, we will have a detailed and phased deal in the coming days, God Almighty.


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A word of thanks from sons of Harouf Town


We, the people of the struggling Southern town, Harouf, with the different views and attitudes of intellectual, ideological, and political, go to the writer and author of this important historical research, Professor Al-Haj/ Ali Abbas Harqous, with many thanks, love and deep gratitude and appreciation, for the strenuous and distinguished efforts to produce as this important historic and serious research, which really enriches the historical library in the South and Lebanon, for the new, important and distinctive information, about the history of this rich converged village.

Call a hope, from God Almighty, health and wellness progress and compromise for every people in Harouf.

We hope, in God Almighty, that inspires the rest of the people of Harouf, to give such fruitful constructive efforts, for what is good and the interests of the town and its citizens. God is the arbiter of success.


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